Type conversion, also known as type casting, refers to the process of converting a value of one data type to another. In C++, there are several ways to perform type conversion:
- Implicit type conversion: This type of type conversion occurs automatically when a value is assigned to a variable of a different data type. For example, when an integer is assigned to a float variable, the integer is automatically converted to a float.
- Explicit type conversion: This type of type conversion requires the use of a type cast operator. There are two types of type cast operators in C++: static_cast and reinterpret_cast. The static_cast operator is used for conversions between related types, such as integers and floating-point numbers. The reinterpret_cast operator is used for conversions between unrelated types, such as pointers and integers.
- C-style type conversion: This type of type conversion uses the type cast operator in the form of (type)value. This type of type cast is considered less safe than the other two types because it can allow for conversion between unrelated types, which can lead to undefined behavior.
It is generally recommended to use either implicit type conversion or static_cast for type conversion in C++, as they are safer and more reliable than C-style type conversion.