C++ is a high-level, general-purpose programming language that was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 as an extension of the C programming language. It is an object-oriented programming (OOP) language, which means that it allows you to define and manipulate objects, as well as encapsulate data and behavior within those objects.
C++ is used to develop a wide range of applications, including operating systems, web servers, browsers, games, and scientific software. It is a popular language for developing high-performance and mission-critical systems due to its efficiency and low-level control.
Some of the key features of C++ are:
- OOP: C++ supports object-oriented programming concepts such as classes, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. This allows you to define complex data structures and write modular, reusable code.
- Templates: C++ templates allow you to write generic, reusable code that can be customized for different data types. This enables you to write flexible and efficient code that can adapt to different requirements.
- STL: The Standard Template Library (STL) is a collection of algorithms, containers, and iterators that are provided with the C++ standard library. It helps you to write efficient and reusable code for common programming tasks.
- Exception Handling: C++ supports exception handling, which allows you to handle runtime errors and exceptions in a structured and efficient way. This helps you to write robust and reliable code that can handle unexpected situations.
- Compatibility: C++ is compatible with the C programming language and allows you to use C libraries and code in your C++ programs. This makes it easy to integrate C++ into existing C projects and to reuse existing code.
Overall, C++ is a powerful and versatile programming language that is widely used in a variety of applications. It provides a strong foundation for object-oriented programming, templates, and the STL, which makes it an excellent choice for developing high-performance, scalable, and reliable software.