Database normalization is the process of organizing a database in a way that reduces redundancy and dependency. It is a design technique that helps to structure a database in a way that reduces redundancy and dependency, and ensures data integrity.
Normalization involves dividing a database into two or more tables, and defining relationships between the tables. This helps to ensure that data is stored in a consistent, organized manner, and helps to minimize data redundancy.
There are several normal forms that can be used to normalize a database. The first normal form (1NF) requires that all data in a table be atomic (i.e., indivisible). The second normal form (2NF) requires that all data in a table be dependent on the primary key of the table. The third normal form (3NF) requires that all data in a table be dependent on the primary key of the table, and that there be no transitive dependencies.
The main benefit of normalization is that it helps to ensure data integrity and reduce data redundancy. It also makes it easier to modify the structure of a database, as changes can be made to one table without affecting the other tables. Normalization also makes it easier to query and retrieve data from a database, as the data is more organized and structured.